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Generations of computers

Evolution:evolution of computer
The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterizes by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting, in increasing smaller, cheaper, and more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

First generations of computer(1940-1956):first generation computer
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. They were often enormous in size taking up entire room. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat which was often the causes of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operation and they could solve only one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape and output was displayed on print outs. The UNIVAC and ENIAC are examples of first generation computers. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business Clint, the U.S census Bureau in 1951

Second generations of computers(1956-1963)second generation computer
Transistors were used for circuity in second generation computers. Thar means vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors. The transistors was far superior to vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller in size, faster, cheaper, more energy efficient and more reliable than first generation. Second generations computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second generation computers moved from machine language to assembly language. E.g. IBM 401
third generation of computer
Third generation of computers (1964-1971)
Integrated circuit (IC) was used instead of transistor in third generation of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, user interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with operating system. They were smaller and cheaper than second generation computers. E.g IBM 360

Fourth generation of computers (1971-to present)
Microprocessor brought the fourth generation computers as thousand of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip in 1981, IBM introduced its first computer for fourth generation of computerthe home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. All these computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually lead to the development of internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and hand held devices.

Fifth generation of computers (present and beyond)fifth generation of computer
Fifth generation computers based on the artificial intelligence, are still in development, through there are some applications such as voice recognition, that are being used today. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The global of fifth generation computing is to develop that respond to natural language input and capable of learning and self organization.